By John Beames
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Extra resources for A Comparative Grammar of Modern Aryan Languages of India
Thus in Attic a penult with a long vowel bears the circumflex if the ultima is short, and the acute if the ultima is long (recall that a circumflex cannot occur on the penult if the ultima is long). 1 Obstruents Except where affected by conditioned sound changes, the stops of Proto-Indo-European (voiceless, voiced, and voiced aspirated) retain their integrity in Greek, though the voiced aspirates are devoiced: ∗b h → [ph ] (j), ∗d h → [th ] (q), and so forth. In addition the palatal and velar stop phonemes of Proto-Indo-European merge as Greek velars; thus ∗k and ∗k → [k] (k), ∗ and ∗ → [¸] (g), while ∗ h and ∗ h → [kh ] (c).
The stem of all other cases is weak. Greek is one of the languages which best provides evidence of this Proto-Indo-European inflectional phenomenon. Even so, the ancestral patterns have often been obscured in Greek by processes of paradigm regularization; for example, within a given paradigm Greek has essentially limited ablaut variation to the suffix. Consequently, in a synchronic grammatical description of Greek, third declension noun stems are more appropriately and efficiently categorized by their final member than by their ancestral ablaut and accent pattern.
3, §2). 1). 3. 2. As illustrated, Attic possesses a symmetrical system of nine oral stops: three manners of stops (voiceless unaspirated, voiceless aspirated, and voiced) produced at three distinct points of articulation (bilabial, dental, and velar; labiovelar stops /kw /, /kwh /, and /gw / are attested in the second millennium BC dialect of Mycenaean Greek, on which see Ch. 3). Filling out the set of obstruents are two voiceless fricatives – the dental /s/ and the glottal /h/. The Classical Attic sonorant system consists of two nasals, bilabial /m/ and dental /n/ (on velar [ŋ] see below), and two dental liquids, /l/ and /r/.
A Comparative Grammar of Modern Aryan Languages of India by John Beames