By William D. Davies
Madurese is an important neighborhood language of Indonesia, with a few 14 million audio system, more often than not at the island of Madura and adjoining components of Java, making it the fourth greatest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. there is not any current finished descriptive grammar of the language, with current stories being both sketches of the full grammar, or specified descriptions of phonology and morphology or a few specific subject matters inside those elements of the grammar. there's no competing paintings that offers the breadth and intensity of assurance of this grammar, particularly (though now not solely) in regards to syntax.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Madurese
1988/89, and at others as a slightly raised ɛ [ɛ], or ɔ, [ɔ] (Stevens 1968). Potential examples include: (35) [sɛ] ~ [sɛ] ~ [se] ‘relative particle’ [rɛja] ~ [rɛja] ~ [reja] ‘that’ [pɔlɛ] ~ [pɔlɛ] ~ [pole] ‘again’ [ratɔ] ~ [ratɔ] ~ [rato] ‘king’ Again, there is a great deal of speaker variation. Acoustic analysis does not confirm a reliable difference in open and closed syllables. 23 Cohn and Lockwood (1994) report a different tense/lax alternation involving [ɛ]/[e] and [ɔ]/[o]. They report systematic tensing and raising of front and back non-high vowels following nasals, citing the data in (36), which confirms Stevens’ (1968) observation (and reflects the nasalization rule to be discussed presently).
12 This occurs only in open syllables and is due in part to the fact that Madurese // occurs only in closed syllables, as discussed in section 3. (10) Madurese [ka] [carɛta] [parɛksa] 12 Indonesian [kə] [ərita] [pəriksa] ‘to’ ‘story’ ‘examine’ These correspondences again largely reflect the development of Proto-MalayoPolynesian vowels in the two languages. See Stevens 1966. Syllable structure and phonotactic constraints 25 The opposite correspondence obtains in some cognates. Indonesian /a/ is // in Madurese.
Occurs following all of the nasals as well as [l], [r], and [s], when the last three are in word-initial position. [ɛ] also occurs in word-initial position. The overwhelming majority of lexical items show this pattern. ) While illustration with word-initial consonants is highlighted here, the pattern obtains Vowel inventory and distribution 31 word internally as well. In [ɛki] ‘tall’, the non-high [ɛ] follows the voiceless unaspirated stop , but the high vowel [i] follows the voiceless aspirated stop.
A Grammar of Madurese by William D. Davies