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By Mark Donohue

The sequence builds an in depth selection of prime quality descriptions of languages worldwide. every one quantity bargains a entire grammatical description of a unmarried language including absolutely analyzed pattern texts and, if acceptable, a glossary and different appropriate details that's on hand at the language in query. There are not any regulations as to language kin or sector, and even though certain recognition is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and useful remedies of higher recognized languages also are incorporated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the one criterion is a excessive typical of clinical caliber.

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A detailed spirit world is accepted as existing in the same space as the normally accessible world, but is invisible and immaterial to most people; only those with the rare ability to see the other world are capable of manipulating it and its denizens, which include many varieties of spirit and demon beings, both sentient and non-sentient, benign and malevolent. Many unusual landscape features, such as protruding rocks or unusual trees are thought to be inhabited by spirits that dwell there either voluntarily or through having been bound there against their will by another spirit or person.

Before and since that time I have visited Indonesia a number of times, on each occasion inevitably meeting Tukang Besi people in the unlikeliest of places, and later conducting research under the auspices of the Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia. During these visits, between 1992 and 1995, the majority of the time was spent in the village of Patuno on the north coast of Wanci, and also a fair deal of time around Kota Wanci on the west coast. Walking trips around the island of Wanci were undertaken, to see how people in other villages lived and spoke, and occasionally to Kaledupa as well.

1 —» —> Jjji'sara] ['sama], ['t/amatJ 'say' 'district officer' Extra-phonemic issues Extra-phonemic sounds Not all of the sounds heard from Wanci speakers conform to all of these conventions, sounds in the class of interjections or imitatory noises. 1 Phonotactics The canonical form of a root is disyllabic, and each syllable consists of: S -> (C)V The language will obviously allow no phonemic consonant clusters or final consonants, but will allow vowel clusters. This analysis is facilitated by the analysis of complex phonetic units such as [mp] as unitary pre-nasalised phonemes; this may be justified on the grounds that there are no other unambiguous consonant clusters in Tukang Besi, and that the pre-nasalised series parallel the distribution of the regular stops: INITIAL MEDIAL peku beka meha mpa'ampa'a mbeaka 'backfist' 'cat' 'red' 'sea urchin' 'not' pepe kobe rame tumpe lembe 'slap' 'correct' 'loud, busy' 'first born' 'taut' tenda dahani nangu (kede) ntigi ndanga (ma) nsuana 'storage shelf 'to know' 'to swim on the surface' '(sit) squatting' 'jackfruit' Old (person)' letere pidi wini tinti pindi hansu '11 measure' 'rubbish' 'pull on line (fish)' 'run' 'firm excrement' 'heavy chopping sword' kaluku gai ngaa ngkaru nggala 'ripe coconut' 'hook, pull' 'name' 'carry' 'to be exactly as' motika baga anga kangkau dinggawi 'hard' 'cheek' 'gills of fish' 'crow' 'yesterday' Further support of the unitary analysis of the prenasalised sequences is in their treatment in reduplicated words.

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A Grammar of Tukang Besi by Mark Donohue


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