By Igor Kon, H. Campbell Creighton
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Extra info for A History of Classical Sociology
He underestimated, moreover, the results of cultural diffusion and mutual influence, since he often depicted the effect of the environment as if a society always lived in complete isolation, as a culturally independent entity. Geographers, who shared many of the mistakes of positivist historiography, also endeavoured to bring out the role of physical factors of the environment in the development of society. One eminent sociogeographer was Karl Ritter (1779-1859), who is considered a founder of modern geography along with Alexander Humboldt (1769-1859).
What was relatively new in, it was a partiality for statistical and other ‗rigorous‘ methods of testing the popular hypotheses of geographical determinism. 9 A leading spokesman of environmentalism was the American geographer, Ellsworth Huntington (1876-1947), a geologist by education. ); (2) climate influenced physical and mental ac- 67 tivity, and labour productivity, and consequently caused fluctuations of the business and economic variables of society (his main empirical basis for that was data on the parallelism of the death rate and the cycles of business slumps and booms); (3) insofar as civilisation was a function of the energy and productivity of a nation, favourable or adverse fluctuations of climate determined the growth, decline, and shifting of civilisations.
He represented the racial hierarchy in the form of a three-rung ladder, on the top rung of which was the ‗white‘ race, on the middle rung the ‗yellow‘, and on the bottom rung the ‗black‘. He asserted the superiority of the ‗white‘ race, since its had allegedly been the main role in the creation and development of all civilisations. But, according to him, there was a hierarchy within the ‗white‘ race, at the pinnacle of which were the ‗Aryans‘. Houston Stewart Chamberlain, an English Germanophile (1855-1927), who lived most of his life in Germany, created another racist ‗historiosophy‘.
A History of Classical Sociology by Igor Kon, H. Campbell Creighton