By Viacheslav A. Chirikba
Abkhaz is among the 3 languages comprising the Abkhazo-Adyghean, or West Caucasian department of North Caucasian linguistic relatives (the different department being Nakh-Daghestanian, or East Caucasian). Abkhaz is spoken through nearly 100,000 humans within the former Soviet union (mainly within the Republic of Abkhazia, Caucasus), and through no less than an analogous variety of audio system in Turkey and a few center east international locations (small Abkhaz colonies are available additionally in Western Europe and the USA). Abkhaz is infamous for its large consonantal stock (up to sixty seven consonants in its Bzyp dialect) and by means of its minimum vocalic method: merely vowels. although Abkhaz used to be studied by means of a few students (among whom P. Uslar in XIX century, or extra simply ok. Lomtatidze in Georgia and G. Hewitt in nice Britain), many features of Abkhaz grammar (especially its syntax) nonetheless must be properly defined. Abkhaz is the one West Caucasian language to own the class of grammatical periods, manifested in own pronouns, verb conjugation, numerals and in type of quantity. Abkhaz is an ergative language, the ergative development being represented now not by way of case endings, as in similar Circassian and Ubykh (Abkhaz doesn't have the case system), yet by means of order of actant markers. The verbal root is composed often of 1 consonant, preceded through a string of prefixes (class-personal, directional, temporal, negational, causative, etc.) and by means of few suffixes. Verbs could be stative or dynamic, finite or non-finite. The grammatical caricature of Abkhaz comprises information regarding its phonological procedure, morphology, and syntax. a quick textual content is supplied with grammatical reviews.
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Extra info for Abkhaz
Azia-DIR d-aa-r+ca 0-ja-3ba-0-jt'. he-come-PURP it-he-decide-AOR-DYN:FIN After having waited for about a year, Rashit decided to go to Abkhazia to visit his daughter and his son-in-law. 5. a-j 0 az-c0 a ART-friend-PL:H 0-aa-§'ta+x-na them-hither-lift-PCONV a-mla ART-road d-na-k0 a+l-0-t '. he-PREV-depart-AOR-FIN: DYN ja-s'amxa his-knee c'asxa-k' swelling-IDF He took his friends and departed. 6. jara that wabraj very alamtala time bat'a Bata 0-a-l-na-x-zaap', d-a-r-g0 aq'-wa da-§'ta-n . it-it-PREY-it-ROOT-INFER!
1. Direct Speech. The introductory verb indicating the author of the quotation can stand in all forms and tenses of the dynamic verbs. 7. Verb Serialization. Verb phrases expressing simultaneous actions, possessing the same grammatical form and having a single grammatical subject can follow each other within a clause, cf. wiij m+i+w ac'iira-g'a e-M-ma-wa-p; a-s 0q "'ii d-8-px'a -wa-jt; ja-1-f-wa-:ft' 'this not-be-PRES:STAT:NFIN ART-education-and it-she-have-PRES:STAT-FIN ART-book she-it-read-PRES:DYN-FIN it-shewrite-PRES:DYN-FIN =besides, she is also educated: she reads, writes' (DG 287).
It-it-PREY-it-ROOT-INFER! him-it-CAUS-disturb-PRES:CONV he-tie prostrate-PAST At this very time it turned out that Bata's knee developed a swelling, and he was in bed, being troubled by it. 7. a-bak'am-c0 a ART-doctor-PL:H 0-a-da-j-ga+l-0-t' them-it-PREY-he-fetch-AOR-DYN:FfN j-a3°a-m-k"'a, they-one:H-not-CONY 76 LW/M 119 Abkhaz ja-j 0 a+:j'a-m-k>Oa, axa ak'+g'a 0-ja-ma-x 0 a-0-jt'. but anything it-him-not-help-AOR-DYN:FIN they-two:H-not-CONV He fetched the doctors, not a one or two, but nothing was helping him.
Abkhaz by Viacheslav A. Chirikba